Since the beginning of COVID-19, anti-Chinese sentiments have increased globally, often fueled by misinformation spread across multitudes of media platforms. While Sinophobia transcends across countries, one, in particular, stands out: The United States. In 2023 alone, several hate crimes have been reported.
Bruce Springsteen is one of the greatest songwriters and performers in American musical history. His lyrics are full of simultaneous hope and despair, reflecting the changing and evolving social fabric of the United States resulting in a sound that resonates with hundreds of millions of Americans coming from all faiths, socioeconomic, racial, age, and ethnic backgrounds. While many Americans have misunderstood Springsteen’s politics through his 1984 single “Born in the U.S.A.”, mistaking him for being a symbol of Reagan-era politics and staunchly Conservatively patriotic, his politics are far more Progressive and Liberally focused. His lesser-known work, the 1997 single titled “41 Shots (American Skin)”, is an example of this.
In the past year, since the January 6th attacks on the U.S. Capitol, white supremacy and right-wing extremist militant groups have been experiencing a rise in recruitment and have been undergoing many changes, largely due to the changing social and political structures within the United States. Renewed discussion about fandoms and white nationalist/right-wing movements has been occurring in the media since the January 2021 storming of the Capitol building. Partially classifying the white supremacist movement as a fandom can have benefits in the study of these organizations and the individual relationships of domestic terrorists to one another.