The Muslim Golden Age is a historiographical creation like many other conceptions that influence our view of Medieval history. Muslim culture and civilisation flourished throughout an age of exception stability and wealth until at least the early thirteenth century (Kafadar, 2010). The Golden Age highlights the greatest achievements accomplished by the Muslim world between the ninth and thirteenth centuries, with the Ottomans and Mughals, who are normally disregarded, being included as part of this time period.
As one examines the human rights violations in Palestine, aiming to promote democratic principles in other corners of the globe seems duplicitous. The problems that we encounter when trying to promote human rights principles question the point of vying for respect for these principles: it seems that, if they are not on the agenda of the most powerful states, it may turn out to be a lost cause. Rights and principles are often addressed when concrete national interests are affected. But also because of national interests, or due to a particular conception of national interests, states are willing to remain silent or even whitewash international crimes.
Despite the threatening likelihood of a global climate crisis, little action has so far been taken by governments. Apart from recurring summits, which only bring forward further protocols, agreements and promises that rarely have any serious enforcement mechanism or consequences if not followed through, radical measures and reforms remain absent. From October 31 until November 14, 2021, world leaders convened in Glasgow for the COP26 summit, aiming to find measures to reduce emissions and prevent the approaching climate crisis in the coming decades.