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Dawn on Charles V palace in Alhambra, Granada, Spain.

Inventing the Islamic ‘Golden Age’

The Muslim Golden Age is a historiographical creation like many other conceptions that influence our view of Medieval history. Muslim culture and civilisation flourished throughout an age of exception stability and wealth until at least the early thirteenth century (Kafadar, 2010). The Golden Age highlights the greatest achievements accomplished by the Muslim world between the ninth and thirteenth centuries, with the Ottomans and Mughals, who are normally disregarded, being included as part of this time period.
 
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Aristoteles Sculpture

Does science need philosophy?

Scientific truth is not perfect, not permanent, not immediate, and not necessarily the ultimate truth. Science does not deliver the ‘meaning of life’ truth - but science is always getting closer to the truth. While science is humanity's transcending achievement, science as a way of thinking is an evolving enterprise. What makes science work? What constitutes good science? What are the boundaries of science? How deep can science dig into the foundations of the world? These are the kinds of questions that "philosophy of science" asks. However, some scientists dismiss philosophy as archaic, a hindrance to science, a nuisance to its progress.
 
Alejandro Mayorkas, United States Secretary of Homeland Security

Damage Control: What Ms. Marvel Tells Us About the State of Homeland Security in the United States

Marvel Studios’ latest addition to the Marvel Cinematic Universe (MCU) is Ms. Marvel, the TV series which showcases Kamala Khan, a Pakistani-American high school student who gains cosmic energy powers from a family heirloom, fights crime and becomes a superhero in her native home of Jersey City, NJ. One area that has been often overlooked in the discourse surrounding this series has been the behavior of the U.S. Department of Damage Control (DODC), a rather lesser agency than S.H.I.E.L.D or S.W.O.R.D, yet one that has been around for many years within the background of the MCU. With Ms. Marvel, however, we get a rather different view of the agency, one that has been hinted at before but never fully seen.
 
United States Supreme Court

The Supreme Court’s rightward shift and how it transforms America 

During his presidency, Trump had the opportunity to nominate three judges to the United States Supreme Court. Consequently, the Court now enjoys a conservative majority, which is gravely reflected in their recent rulings. These rulings dramatically impact the lives of everyday Americans and push the country further in a conservative direction, even after Trump.
 
Agents of S.H.I.E.L.D. Show Bus Billboard

S.W.O.R.D and S.H.I.E.L.D: What the Marvel Cinematic Universe Tells Us About the World of Intelligence and Ethics

It is without question that the Marvel Cinematic Universe (MCU) is one of the biggest media franchises in the current day. For many, it has become a part of their personality and something they enjoy either discussing, collecting, or watching. They allow us to see and explore the world differently than before and in many cases allow us commentaries on pressing issues within society or history, such as gender, race, and power. While there have been many commentaries and analyses on these topics, little has been said about the commentary the MCU offers on the world of intelligence and espionage.
 
United Nations Headquarters

Monisms in International Relations: The Differences and Benefits of Unilateralism and Multilateralism

Bruce Jentleson in his work "American Foreign Policy: The Dynamics of Choice in the 21st Century" defines multilateralism and unilateralism quite clearly. A multilateralist approach differs from a unilateralist approach starkly. However, there are certain aspects of the 21st-century world that assist in fostering such approaches. There are six points that assist in fostering a unilateralist and multilateralist approach; both approaches have been experienced within the new millennium.
 
Putin, hands off Ukraine

How Eurasianism is Manipulated to Justify the War in Ukraine

The conflict in Ukraine has sparked many debates on several issues, from military and political to ideological ones. There are numerous narratives and theories linked to Putin’s decision to invade Ukraine, this fiercely contested portion of Russia’s near abroad. Among these, there are the discourses centered on Eurasianism, which provide the Russian elites with strong arguments for the invasion, at least on an ideological level.