The tale of coal and participation
According to Daniela Szymanska, professor Nicolaus Copernicus University, development happens on two scales: the horizontal and the vertical. The former is bounded by certain limits and includes factors such as the population’s rise of a certain city. The latter is unbounded, infinitely complex and includes factors such as diversification of human activity. Based on recent developments in Poland’s coal crisis, it is clear that the vertical development in Poland is kept in the hands of a few mainly politically affiliated players – which becomes increasingly problematic and ineffective.