Although online hate speech is deeply rooted in Islamophobic sentiments and exhibits distinct characteristics from offline forms of abuse or violence, substantial evidence supports the assertion that online hate speech serves as a catalyst for offline actions. Amidst the proliferation of Islamophobic discourse in online spaces, the dissemination of fake news and misinformation thrives within echo chambers, perpetuating a cycle of prejudice and intolerance.
“Liberté, égalité, fraternité”, translated as liberty, equality, fraternity, is the national motto driving French society and culture. A motto that is chanted and written on signs during protests to transmit the notion of freedom, something that has built France and developed its pride. A motto with the goal of uniting a diverse country that holds diverse individuals under one roof. It conveys an image of France as a place where one can live in harmony with those different from them. Everyone is free and equal in the Republic. Well, everyone except for those who are Muslim.