Monisms in International Relations: The Differences and Benefits of Unilateralism and Multilateralism
Bruce Jentleson in his work “American Foreign Policy: The Dynamics of Choice in the 21st Century” defines multilateralism and unilateralism quite clearly. A multilateralist approach differs from a unilateralist approach starkly. However, there are certain aspects of the 21st-century world that assist in fostering such approaches. There are six points that assist in fostering a unilateralist and multilateralist approach; both approaches have been experienced within the new millennium.
The Eastern Mediterranean has been the historic crossroads of four regions: Europe, the Middle East, Africa, and Asia. Except for being the “home” of their multiple and diverse geographic affiliations and varied political identities, it also constitutes a territory of great strategic importance. This article presents the historical background of the region, given that a lot of the current geopolitical developments are either the outcomes or have their roots in disputes, settlements, and events of the 20th century.
2010/2011 mark the years of the so-called Arab Uprisings, which describe the series of civic, political upheavals and demonstrations that erupted in several countries of the MENA region. The protest that shook the Arab world had widespread consequences for the region – in some countries leading to civil wars that evolved into proxy wars between global powers, leaving people displaced, wounded or dead – leading to Europe’s biggest “refugee crisis” in decades. The uprisings started with the hope to achieve stable democracies and shake off authoritarian, corrupt leaders – a goal which has only in Tunisia, if at all, been reached. It remains questionable how long the conflicts will continue and whether peace can be achieved and stable democracies built anytime soon.